After successfully carrying out important exploratory work in Western Australia, Queensland and New South Wales, which included marking the border between the latter two colonies, Sir Augustus Gregory applied for the position of Queensland Surveyor-General when the post was first created in 1859. His application was successful, and although he relinquished the position in 1863 Gregory remained in charge of Queensland surveys until September 1879. By so doing he became the most powerful public servant in the colony, though given Queensland’s immense geographical area and the fractious nature of the colony’s politicians his duties were extremely difficult. Gregory was totally opposed to agricultural selection, with his decisions on land settlement heavily favouring the pastoral fraternity particularly those on the Darling Downs who acquired most of the prime land in that district. Gregory’s conservatism was also apparent after his appointment to the Legislative Council in 1882, where he opposed social reforms. On the other hand, Gregory made significant contributions to science and developmental works in Queensland before his death in Brisbane on 25 June 1905.